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Internet Acronyms A to Z part 1

Discussion in 'General Affiliate Marketing Forum' started by Biotronik, Mar 19, 2008.

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  1. Biotronik

    Biotronik UK WW Staff affiliate

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    A

    Above the fold - The content on a Web page that you can see without having to scroll down. The content that you see when you access a web page.

    ADN (Advanced Digital Network) - Usually refers to 56kbps leased line

    ADSL - (Asymmetric digital subscriber line) ADSL is currently the most used form of DSL technology. Most homes and small businesses currently using DSL technology use ADSL. It allows a greater amount of data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines.

    Address - An address is a unique identifier assigned to a web page. The address is usually referred to as the URL (Uniformed Resource Locator).

    Aiken, Howard (1900-73) - American Mathematician and computer pioneeer. He realised the importance of Babbage's analytical engine and suggested the automatic sequence controlled calculator (ascc) which, built in the mid 1940s, was the first automatic computer.

    Aliasing and Anti-aliasing - Aliasing is a Web design term which we use to describe the unwanted distortion of visual elements on a computer screen. These take many forms, such as the appearance of jagged or stair-stepped edges along what is supposed to be a smooth, curvy surface (like an O or S) Anti-aliasing is a software technique used in imaging programes (such as Photoshop) to make these curved edges or diagonal lines look smooth and continuous.

    Anonymous FTP - Users can access a remote server using FTP without actually having an account on that server. The user's E-mail address is usually given as a password and the user name 'anonymous' is assigned to the user by systems supporting this service.

    Apache Server - This is a public-domain Web server and was developed by a loosely-knit group of programmers. The first version of Apache was developed in 1995. Because it was developed from existing code plus various patches, it was reffered to as "a patchy server" - hence the name Apache Server. As a result of its advanced features, excellent performance, and free availablity, Apache is now the world's most popular Web server. It has been said that it is used to host more than 50% of all Web sites in the world. Core development of the Apache Web server is now performed by a about 20 volunteer programmers, called the Apache Group.

    Applet - This is a multimedia application written or embedded in the Java language such as animation or sound, viewable only in a Java-enabled browser such as Netscape 2.0 or HotJava.

    ARJ - Allows the user to store files in a compressed format in an archive file. Named after the creator, American programmer Robert Jung.

    Archie - This is is a database of anonymous ftp sites and their contents, the data base "Archie" keeps a track of the contents of these sites, and allows its users to search for files on those sites.

    Archive - Usually compressed, archives are often large files containing several smaller files. Commonly used archive file formats are ZIP, TAR, ARJ, LZH, UC2.

    Archive site - Contains many different kinds of files which are archived and available for users to download either by FTP or E-mail.

    ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - This is the defacto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111.

    AVI (Audio/Video Interleaved) - Common format (.avi) this is for video files which are on the internet. Unlike Quicktime, AVI is usually Windows/DOS based.

    AVS (Address Verification System) - This is a method of verification used by companies to match the first line of an address and the postcode to that of the card Holder that is making the purchase from your site.

    Avatar - This is a digital "actor" or icon that represents who you are in chat rooms etc. The avatar can be whatever you want, including a cartoon, an animal, or any graphical element and it helps other users to identify you easily.

    B

    Bandwidth - In the context of Telecoms it describes the speed of a connection in terms of how much information can be sent through a connection, usually measured in bps (bits-per-second) In the context of Web hosting, it describes the ammout of data sent over a longer period of time, otherwise known as 'Traffic'. For example a web hosting company may allow 20Gb of data per month, before charging for excess.

    Batch Process - In the context of e-commerce, Batch Processing is where the merchant (you) collects the card information for processing and then passes this information to the payment provider, for processing. However, this is not always real-time authorisation.

    Baud - The baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300= 1200 bits per second).

    BBS (Bulletin Board System) - A computer system run by local users which makes files available for downloading and setting up electronic discussion forums.

    Binary - This is Information which consists entirely of ones and zeros. It is also commonly used to refer to files that are not just text files, e.g. images.

    Bit (Binary Digit) - A bit is a single digit number in base-2, in other words, it is either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bps (bits-per-second.)

    Body - In E-mail terms, the part of the message containing the most textual content, usually sandwiched between the He Compress
    The act of discarding redundant or semi-redundant information from a file, thereby making it smaller.

    Bookmark - In general Virtual bookmarks work pretty much the same as the real ones. They record a URL or web page which then enables you to refer back to it at a later date.

    Bounced Message - An Undeliverable email message which is returned to the sender with an error notification.

    bps (Bits Per Second) - speed at which data transfer is measured.

    Browser Endorsement - This is a statement on a website saying 'this site is optimized' for a particular web browser, eg Internet Explorer version 6. This is often accompanied by a recommendation of screen resolution (eg 1024x784) and Hardware (eg a PC).

    Byte - A set of Bits that represent a single character. There are usually 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is made.

    C

    Cache - Area of memory on your computer where frequently accessed data is stored for fast access. All browsers have a cache in which they store data from all current visited websites. Most give you a choice about the amount of memory they use for this function.

    CGI (Common Gateway Interface) - A set of rules that help describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same computer. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard

    cgi-bin - This is the most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGI programs are kept.

    Compress - The act of discarding redundant or semi-redundant information from a file, thereby making it smaller.

    Cookie - A Cookie is a piece of software which records information about you onto your computer. It holds this information until such time that the server requests it. For example, if you are browsing around a virtual shop, each time you place an item in your basket the information is stored by the cookie until you decide to buy and the server requests the purchase information.

    CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) - HTML does not define exactly how the page will be laid out on the viewer's screen hence the recent development of CSS. Style sheets are defined separately from the text and graphics of the page and allow the designer to specify an exact placing of each content element. Available in the latest browsers.

    F


    FAQ - (Frequently Asked Question) Lists of Frequently Asked Questions (and their answers) covering all manner of topics can be found across the World Wide Web, allowing the user to search for a query that somebody has already found the answer to.

    FDDI - (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for transmitting data through optical fibre cables at a rate of around 100 million bps.

    Filename extension - Commonly a three or four-letter extension on the end of a file name designating the file type. There are hundreds in existence, and new ones frequently being invented. Examples are: .txt (text file), .gif (Graphics Interchange Format).

    Finger - A Unix program which displays information about a particular user or all users logged on the system, or a remote system.

    Firewall - Secures a company or organisation's internal network from unauthorised external access (most commonly in the form of Internet hackers).

    Flame - An insulting or derogatory message usually sent via E-mail as punishment for breach of netiquette. There have been instances of 'Flame Wars', when other people join in the heated exchanges. In either case, not recommended.

    Forms - Certain Browsers support electronic fill-in forms. A form on a Web Page can be filled in by users all over the world, and the information sent electronically to the relevant domain site.

    Freeware - (File Transfer Protocol) one of the main ways files are transferred across the Internet. An FTP Site is that which is provided by a company or organisation as a depository for all kinds of files which users may download.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Mar 19, 2008
  2. Biotronik

    Biotronik UK WW Staff affiliate

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    Internet Acronyms A to Z part 2

    G

    Gateway - A Gateway is an interface between two opposing protocols. By means of software and hardware a gateway that allows connection between networks which would otherwise be incompatible. (think of it as an adaptor)

    GIF - (Graphics Interchange Format) developed by Compuserve, GIF is a platform-independent file format, GIF is used extensively throughout the Internet for various graphics files. It compresses files using a 'lossless' method which ensures picture quality is not compromised.

    Gigabyte (GB) - A thousand Megabytes

    Gopher - An Internet Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval system. It recieves an electronic request for information and then scans the Internet for it (similar to an office junior.)

    H

    Header - In E-mail terms, Header is the section of the message which indicates who the sender is and some other brief details, such as the subject of the message.

    Hit - used in reference to the World Wide Web, a "hit" means a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server.

    Home Page - This is the main navigation page owned by a company, it is usually the first page you will find when you search for a specific web site, hyperlinks are made to other pages on the site from the home page.

    Host - when you use the internet you will usually connect to a host computer.

    HotJava - This is a Web browser developed by Sun Microsystems expanding traditional browser capabilities by allowing dynamic functions instead of just static text and images.

    HTML
    (HyperText Markup Language) - This is the tagging language that is used to format Web pages. It combines pictures and text to create Web documents, and the most important feature - hypertext - making it possible for links to be made between different documents.

    HTTP (HyperText Transport Protocol) - HTTP has been used on the World Wide Web since 1990, this application-level protocol is essential for the distribution of information throughout the Web.

    Hyperlink - Hyperlinks are highlighted text or images which, when selected (usually by clicking the mouse button), follow a link to another page or web site. Hyperlinks can also be used to automatically download other files as well as sounds and video clips on the woerld wide web.

    I

    Image Map - An image with 'hot spots' which are clickable, allowing several hyperlinks from a single image file. For example, an image of a country or map, with clickable hotspots over each city which when activated will show a detailed city map.

    Internet
    - Spelt with a capital I, it represents the collection of all the interconnected networks in the world, usually referred to as the 'net'.

    internet - Spelt with a lower case i it represents a group of two or more networks connected together.

    IP (Internet Protocol) - The main protocol used on the Internet.

    IP Address - IP is a unique 4-number code designated to every Domain on the Internet. Each Domain also has a Domain Name as well as an IP address to make site addresses easier to remember.

    IRC (Internet Relay Chat) - Real-time world-wide electronic chat program which allows users to communicate with eachother across the globe.

    ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) - A digital telephone line which allows faster data transfer rates than older, existing analog lines. Allows simultaneous transfer of voice, data and video information.

    ISP (Internet Service Provider)
    - Usually a Company or Organisation, such as Velnet.co.uk who are dedicated to providing businesses or home users access to the Internet.

    J

    Java - Java was developed by Sun Microsystems, it is a Web programming language which supports online multimedia effects, such as basic cartoon-like animations, background music and continuously updated information in Web pages.

    .jpg or .jpeg - Easily recognisable filename extensions given to JPEG graphics files.

    JPEG - (Joint Photographic Experts Group) This is a standard of image compression developed specifically for use on the Internet. Most photographic images can be highly compressed using this method, without greatly affecting image quality.

    K


    Kilobyte
    - 1024 bytes, this is often rounded down to a thousand bytes for simplicity.

    L

    LAN (Local Area Network) - This describes a group or network of computers all in the same building or location. They will be connected by a network of cables.

    Leased Line - A rented, high-speed phone link for private use, available 24 hours a day.

    Link
    - Links are the doorways to other sites or hypertext pages. Every time you click on highlighted text to go to another page you're following a link. (Link puts the hyper in hyperlink).

    Local Area Network - see LAN (above)

    M

    Mailserver - A mailserver is the computer and its software that enables retrieval and sorting of E-mail messages.

    Megabyte (MB) - The unit of measurement for a thousand Kilobytes (a million bytes.)

    MIME - (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) This is a format that was originally designed to include images, sounds, animations and other types of documents within Internet mail messages.

    Mirror site - An FTP site which basiacally contains exactly the same files as the site it is mirroring. Sometimes Sites may be mirrored more than once, in different locations around the world. They relieve the load that can be placed on a very popular FTP site, hence making it easier for users to gain access and download files faster.

    Modem (MODulator-DEModulator) - Allows the transmission of digital information via an analog phone line.

    Mosaic - A mosaic is a Web browser which is written by a team at NCSA. It Provides a Graphical User Interface which allows access to data on the World Wide Web.

    .mpg or .mpeg - Filename extension for MPEG movies.

    MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) - Commonly used video compression format needed for movie or animation clips on the World Wide Web.

    N

    NCSA
    - (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) The NCSA is the most powerful organisation that launched the Mosaic Web Browser in 1993 for Windows, x-Windows and Macintosh platforms.

    Netiquette - Informal, mostly undocumented set of rules which are designed to make the Web a polite and civilised 'society'.

    Netscape Communications
    - These are the inovators of Netscape Navigator, one of the most popular Web browsers today. They became notorious after introducing several HTML 'extensions' that were unsupported by other browsers.

    Network - A network is two or more computers that are linked together and that are able to share resources.

    Network Time Protocol - An Internet protocol which ensures that the correct time is transmitted.

    Network time server
    - Using Network Time Protocol, users can access this machine to get the correct time.

    Newsgroup - Thousands of Newsgroups exist, they distribute information on different subjects by utilising Usenet.

    Newsreader - The newsreader is a program that permits the user to read a Newsgroup message via Usenet.

    NIC (Network Information Center) - Usually the location where all data is organised for a particular network.

    NNTP (Net News Transport Protocol) - Usenet news makes use of this transfer protocol by moving files around the network.

    Node
    - Any one computer that is connected to a network.

    O

    Offline
    - Working offline is When your computer carries out an operation or task and it is not connected to the internet (or any other computers).

    Online - Your computer is working online when it performs a task or operation and is connected to the internet (or other computers).
     
  3. Biotronik

    Biotronik UK WW Staff affiliate

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    Internet Acronyms A to Z part 3

    P

    Packet - Packets are simply chunks of data with their own individual destination addresses. Imagine packets as sealed envelopes containing data, with addresses written on them. They travell through the system, untill they reach the correct destination. (Information which is shifted around the Internet in 'packets')

    Page - In the context of the World Wide Web, a 'page' is the name given to a basic Web document, such as the one you are viewing on Velnet at the moment.

    Password - A group of characters required to be given correctly when demanded by a computer or web site before it will allow access by the user

    Peripheral - Any device that is connected to, and controlled by, a computer but external of the Central Proccessing Unit (CPU). (A printer for example).

    Pixel - These are the tiy areas (dots) that make up a computer graphic picture that appears on your screen

    Plug-In - Your browser is limited to certain capabilities such as displaying images and web pages. More complicated things such as audio and video may require plug-ins like Shockwave and RealAudio to enable them to work.

    POP (Post Office Protocol) - This provides a store-and-forward service, to enable movement of E-mail on demand from an intermediate server to a single destination machine, usually a PC or Macintosh.

    POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) - A protocol that provides a simple, standardized way for users to access mailboxes and download messages to their computers

    PPP (Point to Point Protocol) - PPP is a type of Internet connection that enables a computer to use Internet protocols to exist as part of the Internet. It requires a modem, a standard telephone line and an account from a service provider.

    Program - The set of instructions which the computer carries out. In whatever language the program is written the machine follws the instructions one at a time in order.

    Programming Language
    - The language that allows the computer user to tell the computer what to do. There are many different languages

    Protocol - The method by which computers communicate to each other over the Internet in order to provide a service

    Public access provider - An organization or company that supplies Internet access for individuals or other organizations

    Public domain - This refers to software that anybody can use or modify without the need for authorisation. (it`s free)

    Pull Down Menu - A facility which is available as a list of options with software packages. With a mouse clicking on an icon at the top of the screen and moving downwards results in the menu (of options) being 'pulled down' to reveal more options.

    Q

    Qwerty - A computer keyboard of the normal two handed type, (probably what is infront of you right now). The word comes from the first six keys on the second or third row down on the keyboard.

    R

    R.A.M. (Random Access Memory)
    - A set of storage locations any of which can be accessed directly without having to work through from the first one. These can be written to and read from. (to core store)

    R.O.M. (Read Only Memory) - A memory that holds data or instructions permanently and cannot be altered by the computer or programmer.

    Re-Boot - A term instructing the user to load the system again. Often used when the program has gone wrong or is on an endless loop from which it cannot leave.

    Read Write Memory - This type of memory can be written into, as well as read, as opposed to ROM.

    Refresh Rate - The number of times per second that the data held in a dynamic RAM chip or on screen display must receive a 'booster' signal to maintain its accuracy or visability.

    Router - Routers concentrate examining the destination addresses of the packets that pass through them and then decide which route to send them on. A router is classed as a special-purpose computer (or software package) that will handle the connection between 2 or more networks.

    S

    Scripting language
    - A series of commands that are programmed to help designate how one computer communicates with another computer.

    Server - In a network, a server makes files available to client programs located on other computers when requested.

    Service Provider - The role of a Service Provider is to supply a gateway to the Internet for subscribers.

    Shareware - Software that is distributed freely on the internet, usually with certain conditions attached. Either the software is released on a trial basis only, and must be registered after a certain period of time, or in other cases no support can be offered with the software without registering it. In some instances direct payment to the author is required.

    Signature - This could be your name, position in company and contact details that will sit at the bottom of any messages that are sent from your e-mail address (to let the recipient know who you are.)

    SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) - Similar to PPP, SLIP lets you use a modem and phone line to connect to the Internet without the need to connect to a host computer.

    SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) - Commonly referred to as sendmail, SMTP is designed to allow the delivery of mail messages to Internet users.

    Smileys - Small characters that are often used in email and forum messages, they provide some degree of character or emotion. Example :) or (",)

    T

    T-1
    - T-1 is a Network link utilised on the Internet allowing speeds of up to 1.54 megabits/second.

    T-3 - A Higher speed (45 megabits/second) Network link that is used on the Internet.

    Tag - In terms of HTML, a 'tag' is used for the marking-up of text in different ways thus enbling it to be formatted in a Web document. Often called 'Markup Tags'.

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - This works hand-in-hand with IP to ensure that packets reach their intended destinations.

    TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) - TCP & IP are the two fundamental protocols which form the basis of the Internet.

    Telnet - Terminal emulation program enabling an authorised user to access another computer that is connected to the Internet as if it were in the same room. (when in reality it could be several thousand miles away).

    Terabyte - 1000 gigabytes

    Terminal - Piece of hardware like a keyboard or V.D.U.(visual disply unit) that allows commands to be sent to a computers CPU(central processing unit).

    Terminal emulator - Enables a PC to emulate(mirror) several terminal types.

    Thread - In a Usenet group scenario, it is a list of messages and replies usually on a chat room forum(textual) working within a database.

    Timeout
    - This function allows the connection to be dropped after a certain period of inactivity.

    U


    Unix - Operating System that is typically written in C, and constructed for multi-user environments. It has TCP/IP incorporated, and is therefore one of the most popular operating systems for servers on the Internet.

    Upload
    - This is where the user transfers (uploads) files from a local or home computer to a specified remote computer (as opposed to download where files are pulled off a remote machine and located ontp local p.c.).

    URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - A URL is classed as a resource addressing scheme of the World Wide Web. It assists in locating and identification of multimedia resources or multiple copies of resources (it acts a bit like an address for websites, images etc that are accesible on the internet).

    Usenet - A specialised network that links thousands of newsgroups covering every subject imaginable.

    W

    WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) - This is an architecture used by a distributed information retrieval system. WAIS is based on the client-server model of computation, it allows users of computers to share information using a common computer-to-computer protocol.

    Wide Area Network (WAN) - WAN`s are Group of computers located geographically apart, they will usually belong to a single company or organisation, WAN`s are connected together using dedicated lines or by satellite,s to simulate a local network.

    WinSock (WINdows SOCKets) - A Windows utility program which allows users that are connected by SLIP, PPP or other direct connection to communicate with other computers on the Internet by TCP/IP.

    World Wide Web ('WWW' or 'Web') - The World Wide Web is a Specialised Internet Service which allows users (you) to connect to remote sites (like Velntet), with information presented as text with hypertext links. Gaphics can be embedded into Web pages, but they can only be viewed using a graphical Web browser. Other applications supported are sound files and movie files.

    Worm
    - A search function or utility on the World Wide Web that can locate resources following user-determined guidelines.

    Z

    ZIP - Filenames that have the .ZIP extension will have been compressed using the PKZIP program. They can be decompressed using the PKUNZIP utility.
     
  4. Resonate

    Resonate <span style="color: white; font-weight: 700; backg affiliate

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    No need to create 3 separate threads for this! I have merged your posts together.
     
  5. vicdigi

    vicdigi Affiliate affiliate

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    Biotronik ,well done, nice and informative.
     
  6. Biotronik

    Biotronik UK WW Staff affiliate

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    Thanks !

    When I've created it, it allowed me only 10000 letters per thread.
     
  7. Resonate

    Resonate <span style="color: white; font-weight: 700; backg affiliate

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    Its ok no problem, you can just reply to the previous post instead of creating another thread. Its a great list & is more beneficial as one long post rather then in 3 separate locations :D
     
  8. TnT13

    TnT13 Affiliate affiliate

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    That's a great little pocket guide there! Well done. :goodjobsign:

    But you missed a few ;)

    DOS - Defunct Operating System

    PCMCIA - People can't memorise computer industry acronyms

    SCSI - still can't see it

    :)
     
  9. temi

    temi Facilitator affiliate

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    I never quite got the hang of how to pronounce SCSI when I was a hardware technician..... some pronounce it "Scasi" other pronounce it "Scusi" anyway, its does not matter any more :)
     
  10. TnT13

    TnT13 Affiliate affiliate

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    Definitely scusi ;) My main gripe was modem and how it was pronounced - everyone seemed to get that one wrong and not many understood modulator - demodulator - which is where 'modem' derived from in the first place.

    Folk might show their age by this one, but remember what a Wimp computer was?

    Windows, icons, mouse, pointers!

    Then there is mouse! The classic - movement operated utility selection equipment.

    Then there were the days when worm stood for write once read many.

    Remember when we had Mugs? Multi-user gamer, not quite sure gamers call themselves that these days.

    Another 'm' classing was Mud - the multi user dungeons and dragons, since then they're now called RPG - not rocket propelled grenades, roll playing games.

    Showing my age here now, so I shall sit and reminisce about the good 'ol days! :)
     
  11. Cryxellis

    Cryxellis Affiliate affiliate

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    An internet dictionary :thumbsup: Nice one, but you can just put the link of it right? to make it short:sweat: anyway thanks for the list very well appreciated:goodjobsign:
     
  12. Arleigh

    Arleigh Affiliate affiliate

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    That's a nice compilation of internet terminologies. It's interesting and useful.
     

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